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92 PCB007 MAGAZINE I SEPTEMBER 2019 Conclusion This article introduced line confocal tech- nology that was recently developed to char- acterize 3D features of various surface types at sub-micron resolution. This technology en- ables automatic microtopographic 3D imaging of challenging products and materials that are difficult or impossible to scan with traditional methods, such as machine vision or laser tri- angulation. Examples of suitable applications for line confocal imaging include highly reflec- tive, mirror-like, transparent, and high-contrast parts, assemblies, and continuous products. The operational principle of the line confocal method and its strengths and limitations were discussed, and three metrology applications for the technology in electronics product man- ufacturing were examined. Several line confocal sensor models are cur- rently in production and commercially avail- able for use in real-time metrology and in- spection applications that require different resolution and field of view. A new bench-top tool that can be equipped with a desired line confocal sensor model is also available. PCB007 This paper was first presented at the IPC APEX EXPO 2019 Technical Conference and published in the 2019 Technical Conference Proceedings. Juha Saily is sales manager at FocalSpec Inc. in Santa Clara, California, USA. Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore have developed an organ-on-an-electronic-chip plat- form, which uses bioelectrical sensors to measure the electrophysiology of the heart cells in three dimensions. These 3D, self-rolling biosensor arrays coil up over heart cell spheroid tissues to form an "organ-on-an-electronic- chip," thus enabling the researchers to study how cells communicate with each other in multicellular systems, such as the heart. The organ-on-e-chip approach will help develop and assess the efficacy of drugs for disease treatment—per- haps even enabling researchers to screen for drugs and toxins directly on a human-like tissue rather than testing on animal tissue. The platform will be used to shed light on the connection between the heart's electrical signals and disease, such as arrhythmias. The research, published in Science Advances, allows the researchers to investigate processes in cultured cells that currently are not acces- sible, such as tissue development and cell maturation. The researchers tested the plat- form on cardiac spheroids, or elon- gated organoids, made of heart cells. These 3D heart spheroids are about the width of two to three hu- man hairs. Coiling the platform over the spheroid allows the research- ers to collect electrical signal read- ings with high precision. Through collaboration with the labs of Ad- am Feinberg and Jimmy Hsia, the researchers were able to design a proof of concept and test them on 3D micro-mold formed cardiomyo- cyte spheroids. (Source: CMU) Self-rolling Sensors Take Heart Cell Readings in 3D

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