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38 PCB007 MAGAZINE I JUNE 2020 Dr. Deming's lecture was inspirational but very much directed to all the managers in the auditorium and focused on leadership. His 14 points for management took shape during his lectures and were covered in various locations in the early draft he supplied to HP (Figure 2). When his book was finally published in 1982 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Advanced Engineering Study under the name Quality, Productivity, and Competi- tive Position, the 14 points had their own chap- ter (Figure 3) [1] . 14 Points for Management Dr. Deming's 14 points describe responsi- bilities for top management. He asserted that shareholders were best served by profitabili- ty—not by quarterly manipulation but by qual- ity—and quality was everyone's job, but it had to be led by management. His 14 points in- clude the following [2] : 1. Create constancy of purpose toward im- provement of product and services with a plan to become competitive and to stay in business. Decide to whom top manage- ment is responsible. 2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. We can no longer live with commonly accepted levels of delays, mistakes, defective materials, and defec- tive workmanship. 3. Cease dependence on mass inspection. Require, instead, statistical evidence that quality is built in to eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis. Purchasing managers have a new job and must learn it. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of the price tag. Instead, it de- pends on meaningful measures of quality, along with the price. Eliminate suppliers that cannot qualify with statistical evi- dence of quality. 5. Find problems. It is management's job to work continually on the system (design, incoming materials, composition of mate- rial, maintenance, improvement of ma- chines, training, supervision, health and safety, and retraining). 6. Institute modern methods of training on the job. 7. Institute modern methods of supervision of production workers. The responsibility of foremen must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. Improvement of quali- ty will automatically improve productivity. Management must prepare to take imme- diate action on reports from foremen con- cerning barriers, such as inherited defects, machines not maintained, poor tools, and fuzzy operational definitions. 8. Drive out fear so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team to fore- see problems of production that may be encountered with various materials and specifications. 10. Eliminate numerical goals, posters, and slogans for the workforce, asking for new levels of productivity without providing methods. Figure 2: The front cover of the 1981 manuscript Dr. Deming provided HP.

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