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36 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I DECEMBER 2021 Since the beginning of PCB design, physical prototypes have played a heavy role in the verification and ultimate approval of a new product for market. e challenge posed by this approach is simple—most designs require more than one prototype spin to achieve approval. A Lifecycle Insights survey 1 turned up an industry average of 2.8 respins per project at a cost of $46,000 per spin. Certainly, there are variables such as design size and complexity, number of boards in a system, bare vs. fully assembled, and target industry or application. ese all impact the cost and number of typi- cal spins. As design complexity increases, so do the unknowns; even if a team designs con- servatively, they're bound to trip over a few new spin-inducing issues. is is so common that project managers oen "bake in" three to four respins to project schedules; you could call that mitigating risk—or planning to fail. e promise of the digital transformation of the electronics design process is "zero- spin," going directly from design into volume production. is requires that every existing check performed on a physical prototype has a digital equivalent, or better yet, constraints synthesized from requirements that ensure correct-by-design. e reality today is that confidence in digital verification isn't high enough for anyone to bet the farm on zero-spin; most consider a single, fully-tested prototype pass as the holy grail. e heart of digital verification is the digital twin, a model of the design with enough fidelity to ensure that checks or simulations catch errors typically caught within the physical testing process. A model of the electronics system is hierarchically constructed of many smaller models representing the enclosure, the environment, the multiple boards, and each board's materials/stackups, components, and Leveraging Digital Twins to Optimize Electronic Systems Digital Transformation by David Wiens, SIEMENS EDA Figure 1: A strong digital twin facilitates design trade-offs and identifies problems early.

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