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42 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I DECEMBER 2021 Article by Ofer Manovitz and Isaak Golod PCB TECHNOLOGIES Hardware design and manufacturing of new electronic devices entail end-to-end quality inspection processes to ensure the delivery of defect-free products and systems. Traditionally, each step along the value stream (PCB design, PCB manufacturing, PCBA, and system integration) has its DFX carried by the respective engineering and QA teams. When DFX is carried out by one engineering team for the PCB design and manufacturing, assembly, and complete system integration, it allows the planning and execution of the optimal tests and inspections necessary for the product's design, quality, cost-effectiveness, and functionality. Designing PCBs, especially complex ones, must be intertwined with the test and inspection plan and management. When designing a new product, you need to consider all phases in the product's life cycle—from sketch to cradle—and carefully plan each phase. One of the critical elements in the design is the testability of the PCB and the final system long before its manufacturing to ensure a consecutive fabrication process, the highest Test and Inspection yield possible, and zero defects—all aimed at securing your client's maximum profitability. For that, you need a solid validation strategy. ree main verticals are required to get the optimal test and inspection end-to-end process: 1. A solid quality and inspection plan throughout the entire production process. 2. Detailed definition of the interfaces between all inspection steps enables optimized risk assessment and root cause analysis. 3. Continuous feedback to enable improved yield and system performance. With long years of experience, we have concluded that it's best to get the engineer- ing team involved in the PCB, PCBA, and system design, even at the schematic lay- out and design stages, to ensure their suc- cessful implementation. Another issue that needs special attention is the quality of the components. You need to make sure you're going to use qualified components or validate them yourself before you start the assembly to ensure no error arises due to their malfunction during or aer the assembly process.

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