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46 PCB007 MAGAZINE I MAY 2023 I've spent a good part of my career work- ing on disciplines such as process control and technology management, and troubleshoot- ing complex issues in electronics manufactur- ing. I also spent quite a bit of time formulat- ing chemical processes and understanding the underlying principles of what makes these pro- cesses function the way they do. Everything is connected. It's all about the entire process and its various constituents. When I first started on this, there were no microvia designs, and most through-hole ratios were easily manageable at 6:1 to 8:1. However, that began to change with the advent of more complex interconnect designs and the require- ment of much higher reliability. Soon, we began using insoluble anodes, periodic pulse reverse plating, and new solution additives, and looking differently at solution agitation. Adding to the complexity of high-end, high reliability printed wiring boards were organic addition agents and their functions related to the physical properties of the electroplated copper deposit. ese addition agents are oen referred to as leveling agents and bright- eners. The Critical Role of Addition Agents It is no mystery that without these specially formulated additives, the grain structure and physical properties of the electroplated cop- per would be less than stellar. You also can Electrodeposition of Copper, Part 4: Addition Agents Trouble in Your Tank by Michael Carano, IPC CONSULTANT

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