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86 PCB007 MAGAZINE I SEPTEMBER 2023 ere is a second byproduct of electroless copper—the Cannizzaro reaction. Here, the reducing agent in the electroless copper plat- ing solution reacts with the caustic component of the solution to produce sodium formate. e sodium formate leads to an increase in specific gravity of the solution, which in turn can lead to solution instability and a slow deposition rate. Additional concerns with increases in specific gravity are plating defects such as hole wall pull- away (HWPA) and interconnect defects (ICD). Another advantage of these DM systems is the relatively low cost to automate the plating line. As an example, a graphite-based or carbon black process with a horizontal plating tool is able to prepare and coat a board in five to six minutes. e panel is then ready for either panel plating in electrolytic copper or is sent to dry film imaging prior to pattern plating. In next month's column of Trouble in Your Tank, I will present a more in-depth discus- sion of direct metallization. PCB007 References 1. HDI Handbook, by Happy Holden. 2. "Comparing the Reliability of a Graphite-based Direct Metallization Process to Conventional Electroless Copper for Rigid Through-Hole Printed Circuit Boards," by Michael Carano, Electronic Cir- cuits World Convention 12, November 2011, Taipei, Taiwan. Michael Carano brings over 40 years of electronics industry experience with special exper- tise in manufacturing, perfor- mance chemicals, metals, semi- conductors, medical devices, and advanced packaging. To read past columns, click here. In a recent presentation to the CHIPS Act Industrial Advisory Committee R&D Gaps Workgroup (IAC), IPC's chief technology officer, Matt Ke lly, shared industry dynamics in the wider electronics manufacturing eco- system. We are publishing Kelly's presentation here, in its 22 minute entirety, for your edification and as an example of the work done by all the advocacy organizations representing our industry. PCB Industry Advocating with U.S. Government Officials

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