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42 PCB007 MAGAZINE I MARCH 2024 on the rest of the world for the technology stack that enables semiconductors to function. e U.S. contributes just 4% of the world's sup- ply of PCBs, less than 1% of the substrates, and 3% of the advanced packaging capability. e implications are profound. First, the long supply chain between the U.S. and Asia is vulnerable to natural disasters, political deci- sions, and disruptions tied to global choke- points. As we have seen in the Red Sea, small bands of bad actors can cripple the global sup- ply chain for months. More and more American companies are examining their global supply chain and seeking to rebalance risk with a more balanced portfo- lio. Diversifying their footprint across Asia is a first step, but it doesn't get those microelectron- Where have all the factories gone? A tour of America's former bustling manufacturing communities is a stark reminder that, for the past three decades, we let the microelectron- ics manufacturing ecosystem disappear over- seas, primarily to Asia. For decades, foreign competitors seeking to control critical markets played a long game. Government investment and subsidies were effective in undercutting U.S. and European companies. As other coun- tries created this unfair competitive advantage in manufacturing, the know-how also migrated in their direction. is resulted in the serious workforce challenges the semiconductor and printed circuit board industries face today. It's no surprise that 30 years of different strat- egies led to starkly different results. We depend Going Beyond the CHIPS Act to Power American Manufacturing American Made Advocacy by Travis Kelly, PCBAA

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