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54 The PCB Magazine • March 2016 plier's service team location, training, and expe- rience level as well as the availability of a local spare parts hub that stocks the most critical sys- tem components in order to avoid long transit and customs clearance delays. In addition to system-related issues, facilities can also contribute to unscheduled downtime. Power outages or brownouts, out-of-tolerance temperatures, humidity, vacuum, compressed air, or air quality each can negatively impact the system utilization. Finally, given the fact that it can be difficult to differentiate between a sys- tem problem and a process issue when diagnos- ing yield issues, it is also important that your supplier have an experienced applications engi- neering team that can help diagnose potential issues with your laser process. Summary In this column, we have tried to provide an overview of the factors related to cost-of-owner- ship and the main components. When review- ing typical UV laser processing systems, upfront costs and maintenance costs make up the larg- est percentage of cost of ownership, with the majority of maintenance costs related to laser and optics replacement. As such, system and supplier longevity are especially important in order to depreciate these costs over longest pos- sible period. Once you have purchased your system, your quest for lowest cost of ownership and cost per panel has not ended. Ensure that your facilities meet the system site requirements in order to avoid future yield issues and excessive system maintenance costs and downtime. Also ensure that your process development team is suffi- ciently trained to best optimize your process- es for both throughput and yield as well as to avoid the common mistake of sacrificing pro- cess robustness for process throughput. Whether you are considering a new UV laser processing system or are attempting to improve the COO of an existing system, keep this frame- work and these factors in mind. A holistic ap- proach that considers system, supplier, person- nel, facility costs, capabilities, and limitations will serve you well and will help ensure that you get the most out of your investment. PCB References 1. Keeping on Top of Laser Safety, by Mike Jennings and Patrick Riechel, ESI. Mike Jennings (left) is director of product mar- keting with EsI's industrial products division. Patrick Riechel (right) is product manager for EsI's flexible circuit micromachining tools. stepping up to laser proCessing for flex, part 2 human voices are individually recognizable because they're gen- erated by the unique components of each person's voice box, phar- ynx, esophagus and other physical structures. Researchers are using the same principle to identify devices on electrical grid control networks, using their unique electronic "voices"— fingerprints produced by the devices' individual physical characteristics—to determine which signals are legitimate and which signals might be from at - tackers. A similar approach could also be used to protect networked industrial con- trol systems in oil and gas refineries, manufacturing facilities, and more. The research, reported in Febru- ary at the network and Distributed system security symposium in san Diego, was supported in part by the national science Foundation (nsF). While device fingerprinting isn't a complete solution in itself, the technique could help address the unique security challenges of the electrical grid and other cyber- physical systems. The approach has been success - fully tested in two electrical substations. Device 'Fingerprints' Could Help Protect Power Grid, Other Industrial Systems

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