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April 2016 • The PCB Design Magazine 49 few locations would be unnecessary. Instead, hybrid designers have at their disposal the abil- ity to add crossover dielectric material. Remember that, although we are using the term "layers" when talking about our CAD ap- plication, the actual hybrid design will be fab- ricated by screen printing material from the bottom up. Therefore if we have shorts in only a couple of locations between two adjacent lay- ers of conductors, we can instead insert a small amount of dielectric material to isolate those shorts in only those specific locations. To do this within our CAD application we will desig- nate a new CAD layer for this dielectric cross- over material, but it will only have an image on it in those specific locations where the isolation is needed. When the hybrid design is fabricated, those areas of crossover dielectric material will be screen printed over the wires on the bottom that would otherwise be shorted, and then the next layer of wires will be screen printed over the top of that. Hybrid design CAD software has built-in routines specifically for generating crossover di- electric areas. These areas will match the area of wires that are shorting together to provide full insulation, and they can be applied manually or generated automatically depending on the needs of the design. Designing hybrid vias is also significantly different than what most PCB designers will be used to. In a standard PCB design, the board is usually drilled after the layers are composited together. In a hybrid design, however, vias are not drilled. Remember, the hybrid design is built from the substrate up by a screen print- ing process that prints both conductive mate- rial and dielectric material. Therefore vias are created by either screen printing a spot of con- ductive material, or by not screen printing di- electric material at that same location leaving a void. Because of this, standard drilling files are not needed in a hybrid design as the creation of vias is managed completely by the screen print- ing processes. And with that we have reached the end of Part 2 of this series. Today we have discussed the layer structure of a hybrid design and how those layers are managed in a CAD application. We have also discussed how conductive layers and dielectric layers are designed and the unique differences that hybrid design tools need over standard PCB design software for this. But there is still more to come: components on a hybrid design, wirebonds, and ink resis- tors. So please look for Part 3 next month. See you then. PCBDESIGN Tim Haag is customer support and training manager for Intercept Technology. the Basics of hyBriD Design, part 2 yole Développement (yole), the "More than Moore" mar- ket research and strategy con- sulting company, has released the report Power electronics for eV/HeV 2016: Market, In- novations and Trends. With this new report, the company proposes updated market metrics and forecasts for electrified vehicles and a comprehensive geo- graphical analysis. yole's analysts highlight the re- lated incentives and deterrents for market growth. Within its new report, yole is considering 4 converters in one electric/hybrid electric vehicle. Sales of battery elec- tric cars doubled between 2014 and 2015. Pushed by aggressive targets in terms of CO 2 emissions, electrifica- tion is undoubtedly the "greenest" option for car makers, with "diesel-gate" strengthening this impression and improving the public's opinion of electric cars. The Automotive Market is Turning Electric

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