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44 DESIGN007 MAGAZINE I APRIL 2018 working, and an array of sensors, there will be a reciprocal augmentation in the amount of heat generated by these various features. Therefore, there will be an increased need for thermal dissipation. Instead of using a con- ventional aluminum heat sink that will enlarge the size of the console and other related com- puter/electronic systems in the car, this new graphene film heat sink will not only provide a much thinner planar thermal management solution, but also a much more effective one. Graphene is highly adaptable to planar ther- mal management and electronic packaging applications. It can be dispersed in solutions for spray inks and coatings and mixed with polymers to provide substantial enhancements to its thermal characteristics. Knowing this, researchers have taken the unique thermal conductivity capabilities of gra- phene and added carbon nanocapsules, along with diamond powder particles, to greatly augment its thermal performance. Moreover, the diamond powder particles mitigate the electrical conductivity of the graphene, which in turn will not pose any electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues for PCBs and electronic devices. This patented engineering method integrates graphene with the diamond powder particles into a reticular structure allowing thermal conduction without any interruption. In addition, the holes of the structural mesh are filled with the car- bon nanocapsules (that have a thermal radiation divergence of 0.98) to increase the thermal radiation efficiency. This graphene film heat sink with unequaled high heat conductivity on both the x and y planes, combined with the efficient transformation of infrared heat radia- tion from the carbon nanocapsules on the z plane, can transmit the heat out in 3D form. While graphite film's thermal conductivity is limited to the x and y planes, the new graphene film has excel- lent thermal spreading capability on the z plane as well. Therefore, the film's pla- nar thermal management performance is much better than a graphite film heat sink, not only on the x and y planes, but also on the z plane. The high polarizability of these nano materi- als enables them to spread evenly on the sur- face of the film, which maximizes the thermal radiation cooling effect. The graphene film's nano structure strengthens its electrical insula- tion so that it can withstand voltage above 2KV. The thermal spreading layer has a high level of heat emission ability through infrared radia- tion, and thus increases the thermal emission even in a confined space. Depending upon the product's requirements, adding a metal layer beneath the film speeds up the heat emission to the nano structure layer, facilitating greater thermal radiation. Figure 1: One possible thermal radiation structure that utilizes the new graphene film heat sink. Figure 2: Graphene film can also be applied to the top and bottom of a PCB.

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