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96 PCB007 MAGAZINE I FEBRUARY 2020 engage in QC which makes so much money for the company that we do not know what to do with it." Core Attributes of the Ishikawa Philosophy Here are Ishikawa's seven basic quality tools. 1. Cause and effect diagram: Identifies root cause by brainstorming many possible causes for a problem, and then sorts the causes into categories. 2. Pareto chart: Bar graph representation of a histogram sorted by descending frequency used to prioritize data based on the Pareto principle (80/20 rule), where 80% of a problem comes from 20% of the causes. 3. Flowchart: A visual representation (picture) of a process. 4. Check sheet: A customized form for collecting and analyzing data. 5. Scatter diagram: Graphs pairs of numeri- cal data, one variable on each axis, to look for trends, patterns, or relationships in the data. 6. Control charts: Graphs used to study how a process changes over time. 7. Histogram: A graph for showing frequency distributions and how often each different value in a set of data occurs and deter- mining whether a process has a normal or bell-shaped distribution. Walter A. Shewhart (1891–1967) Dr. Walter A. Shewhart was one of W. Edwards Deming's early mentors, promoting the utilization of his own ground- breaking creation: the SPC control chart. Shewhart be- lieved that management did not have sufficient access to the real-time data needed to effectively manage and control processes in a manufacturing environment. To this end, Shewhart developed a set of statistical process control methods that focus on reducing pro- cess variation to improve quality. He was also the creator of the Shewhart cy- cle, better known as the plan–do–check–act (PDCA) cycle, which seeks continuous im- provement by combining constant evaluation of management policy and procedures with statistical analysis. It is not hard to appreciate Shewhart's passion for statistics when con- sidering his most recognizable quote: "The long-range contribution of statistics depends not so much upon getting a lot of highly trained statisticians into industry as it does in creating a statistically minded generation of physicists, chemists, engineers, and others who will in any way have a hand in develop- ing and directing the production processes of tomorrow." Core Attributes of the Shewhart Philosophy The Shewhart cycle (Figure 2) is a basic model for continuous improvement that can be used in a variety of situations, such as begin- ning improvement projects; developing a new or improved process, product, or service; defin- ing a repetitive work process; performing root- cause analysis; or implementing any change. The Shewhart cycle was later improved on by Dr. Deming. PDCA Cycle Plan the activity that is going to take place. In this step, a gap analysis is done, looking at the Figure 2: The Shewhart cycle.

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