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72 SMT Magazine • September 2016 manufacturing environment. Current imple- mentations of traceability have typically fol- lowed a hazy set of requirements often driven directly between customer and manufacturer for example in an EMS scenario. Requirements are based on quality expectations, limitation of responsibility, and management standards such as those defined by ISO. As such, the current definition of traceability differs from sector to sector, company to company, customer to cus- tomer and even from order to order. When negotiating the levels of traceabili- ty that is required, the key concern is the cost and accuracy of the traceability data collection. When it comes to the need to use the traceabil- ity data, the concern is the completeness and accuracy of the data. On many occasions, the data that is needed is found to be omitted from the agreed specification on cost grounds. The feeling for traceability then is a double nega- tive, in that there is cost and effort the collect the data which may end up being useless. The lack of a uniform component traceability stan- dard has caused an unnecessary consumption of resources (e.g., time, people, money, etc.) to track down and remedy any quality, reliability, etc., issue and has made it difficult to uniformly create and appropriately enforce the necessary contracts. IPC-1782 identifies criteria for track- ing components on or in a specific assembly and creates a means to specify different levels of traceability to accommodate different econom- ic and business models/needs. The purpose of the IPC-1782 standard then is two-fold. It sets out the definitive standard to control what data should be collected, and through the standardisation opens up the ca- pability to introduce the automated collection of traceability data from processes that can sup- port it. In so doing, it drives down the cost over- head. With this achievement in place, trace- ability can then be applied in a broader sense throughout the industry, for example, the ap- plication of traceability to counterfeit compo- nents in an organization's supply chain. This standard helps organizations more eas- ily ensure end-users/consumers will receive products and services that meet or exceed their expectations and in the timeliest and economi- cally viable method. the industry. The scope includes support for the most demanding instances for detail and integ- rity such as those required by critical safety sys- tems, all the way through to situations where only basic traceability, such as for simple con- sumer products. A key driver for the adoption of the standard is the ability to find a relevant and achievable level of traceability that exact- ly meets the requirement following risk assess- ment of the business. The wealth of data accessible from trace- ability for analysis can yield information that can raise expectations of very significant qual- ity and performance improvements, as well as providing the necessary protection against the costs of issues in the market. Taking a graduated approach will enable this standard to succeed where other efforts have failed. Scope of Standard This standard establishes the requirements across different scenarios for supply chain trace- ability based on perceived risk as defined by the Purchaser and Supplier (AABUS). The standard will apply to all critical products, processes, as- semblies, parts, components and items as de- fined by the Purchaser and Supplier of equip- ment used in the manufacture of printed wiring assemblies, as well as mechanical assemblies. Traceability is defined as an unbroken re- cord of documentation of materials, parts, as- semblies, processes, measurements and associ- ated uncertainties. Minimum requirements are based on four levels of traceability for materials and process- es. These levels correlate to the IPC Product Classification System (Class 1, Class 2, Class 3) and/or another set of categories of compli- ance (e.g., IPC-2610 Grades A, B and C) based on the business model/economic needs of the end-use market for the final product (telecom, aerospace, automotive, medical device, and/or consumer electronics) or a subassembly within that product. Purpose of Standard This traceability information is expected to improve operational efficiency and productiv- ity, quality and reliability as well as enable ac- tivities such as predictive maintenance in the IPC-1782 STANDARD FOR TRACEABILITY SUPPORTING COUNTERFEIT COMPONENT DETECTION

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