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JUNE 2019 I DESIGN007 MAGAZINE 83 pacitor due to larger ESR and ESL contributes to higher resistance in the signal return path, which in turn intensifies the FEXT. Summary It is crucial to provide a continuous re- turn path for high-speed signaling during lay- er transitions to minimize signal crosstalk. Crosstalk due to RPD caused by switching of reference planes with different potential dur- ing signal layer transition is reduced by as much as 10dB after bridging by the stitching capacitors. Moreover, a stitching capacitor with smaller ESR and ESL can provide a low- impedance signal return path to achieve mini - mal crosstalk. DESIGN007 References 1. Stitching Capacitors, by Kenneth Wyatt 2. What is the ESR/ESL of capacitors? Taiyo Yuden Chang Fei Yee is a hardware engineer with Keysight Technologies. His responsibilities include embedded system hardware development, and signal and power integrity analysis. When a child runs out onto the road, the average hu- man driver takes 1.6 seconds to hit the brake pedal. The reaction time is cut to 0.5 seconds for automated vehicles fitted with radar/lidar sensors and a camera system. But at a speed of 50 km/h, that still means that the vehicle will continue for another seven meters before the brakes are applied and it comes to a standstill. The Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microinte- gration IZM has teamed up with a range of partners to de- velop a camera radar module that is significantly faster in capturing changes in traffic conditions. The new unit, no bigger than a smartphone, will have a reaction time of less than 10 milliseconds, which, according to a study conducted by the University of Michigan, makes it 50 times faster than current sensor systems and 160 times faster than the average human driver. The real innovation in the new system is its integrated signal processing capacity. This allows for processing to take place directly within the module, with the system se- lectively filtering data from the radar system and stereo camera so that processing can either take place immedi- ately or else be intentionally delayed until a subsequent processing stage. As a result, the system has no need to send status in- formation to the vehicle, but sole- ly reaction instructions. "Integrated signal processing drastically cuts down reaction times," says Christian Tschoban, group head in the RF & Smart Sensor Systems department. Tschoban is currently working on the KameRad project. The func- tioning demonstrator he and his team have developed looks like a grey box with eyes to the right and left: the stereo cameras. Tschoban hopes that in a few years his "grey box" will be fitted as standard in ev - ery vehicle. (Source: University of Michigan) Radar Sensor Module to Bring Added Safety to Autonomous Driving

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