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8 PCB007 MAGAZINE I SEPTEMBER 2019 This issue of PCB007 Magazine concludes our month-long look at industry standards. We wrap up by "waving the standard" in cel- ebration. Of course, that phrase immediately piques the interest of us word- smiths. Why, after all, do Eng- lish speakers use "standard" as a synonym for a flag? The etymology of the word "standard" starts to answer that question. It is wide- ly recognized and cited by scholars that by the mid-twelfth century, standard referred to "a flag or other con- spicuous object to serve as a rallying point for a mili- tary force." Nu- merous etymol- ogists suggest that the Franks (a Germanic tribe from the Rhine river regions) introduced the word "stand - hard," which meant to stand fast or firm. The "stand- hard" was a flag at- tached to a pole or spear, standing up- right in the ground. Tracing the history of flags and stan- dards leads us to this quote from Encyclopedia Britannica [1] : "In Europe, the first 'national' flags were adopted in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance…Toward the end of the Middle Ages, flags had become ac- cepted symbols of countries, kings, organizations, cities, and guilds." The flag's dimensions became significant as well. Britannica continues, "Flags were subdivided according to their shape and purpose into standards, ban - ners, guidons, pennons, and streamers. Of the main types, the standard [2] was the largest, and from its size, was in- tended to be stationary. It marked the position of an important individual be- fore a battle, during a siege, throughout a ceremony, or at a tournament. For the monarch, it marked the palace, castle, saluting base, tent, or ship where he or she was actually present." The flag standard became the symbol of the "rule of law" and a rallying point for those who supported that particular institution. It's no small wonder, then, that the term has ex- panded to include other systems that function as law by mutual agreement. The process of reaching that agreement can be a long, ar- duous road to travel. In this issue, we look at standards both as processes and rallying points. Follow the standards, and your results will be both better and compatible with the rest of the industry. First, Mark Goodman and Alun Morgan present "Is It Time to Shake Up Materials Standards?" Then, Marc Carter discuss- es "Using Industry Standards as Anoth- er PWP Manufacturing Tool." Alifiya Nolan's Notes by Nolan Johnson, I-CONNECT007 Carrying the Flag

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