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12 PCB007 MAGAZINE I FEBRUARY 2020 The Digital Twin Model Increasingly common for Industry 4.0 imple- mentation is the use of the digital twin mod- els. These virtual predictive models for a prod- uct, process, or service contribute a predictive model for engineering, manufacturing, deliv- ery, and sustainment. The pairing of the virtual and physical worlds allows analysis of data and monitoring of systems to head off problems before they occur. This allows for the prevention of down- time, presenting new opportunities and the ability to plan the future by using simulations. The models and simulations are fed by IoT and the internet of systems (IoS) following the data structures and data ownership defined for the planned future networking system. Automation Protocols In this section, I will look at the protocols used in some of the most recent smart factory implementations in North America and Europe. will be an important new part of your smart factory. Table 1 provides more details on creating your smart factory strategy. The timing is ap- proximate, based on how many resources are assigned to the job. The Computer Architecture The computer architecture for the smart factory is the familiar four-level hierarchy (Figure 2). This particular one is the European ISA-95 architecture defined in 1995. The only difference between the earlier architectures is that Level 4 will probably be the cloud. Another essential feature of the smart facto- ry is the interactive use of data from the many sensors and IoT devices. The data ownership and data structures for both the management environment and the technical environment compose many elements (Figure 2). The activ- ities are straightforward, but the deliverables are essential to having a successful project. Table 1: Details for creating the six-stage smart factory strategy.

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