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34 PCB007 MAGAZINE I DECEMBER 2021 If you have been around young children, I'm sure you have fallen into the "Why" game or "Why" loop with the young'un. I'm now a grandfather and the game started again a long time ago. "Grampa? Why is that man limp- ing?" "Well, he has a cast on his foot." "Why, Grampa?" "Well, it looks like he was injured." "Why?" And so it goes. ese brilliant young children have mastered root cause analysis and they don't even know it. Unfortunately, as we grow older, we tend to accept certain things at face value based on experience. e man is limping because he has a cast due to injury and we leave it at that. Sometime later we see the same man, now with a cast on his arm. Again, the grandson starts with the whys. "It looks like he now injured his arm as well," and I'm thinking, "is dude is clumsy or has had some very bad luck." Overcome by curiosity, we approach the man and inquire about his injuries since we have seen him twice. "Nice of you to ask," he says. "You see, I fell down the steps on my porch twice because of the rotted boards. I was meaning to repair them but I'm a little low on cash. I lost my job due to COVID-19." Ah, now we have solved the puzzle. e limping is Why, Why, Why: Never Stop Questioning due to a cast from an injury, but the injury is due to a fall, based on rotted boards on a porch the man could not fix. Welcome to the Five Whys. Grandson: "Why is the man limping?" • Why 1: He has a cast • Why 2: He fell off his porch • Why 3: Rotted boards • Why 4: Neglected maintenance • Why 5: No money due to layoff We have learned much about the man's ill for- tune. If we had just le our query at the 10,000- foot level, we would have just accepted that the man had a cast because of an injury. Why the man fell the second time may require a checkup from the neck up with his physician, but that is another story. Because we asked, we discovered why the man fell into his predicament. From this, we can formulate some meaningful corr e c t i v e a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e man does not have money to fix the porch, we can help by closing off the porch, preventing access and fur- ther injury. is is a short- term corrective action. e problem is not solved, but a recurrence of the possible injury has been prevented. is can also be the contain- ment phase of the solution. Testing Todd by Todd Kolmodin, GARDIEN SERVICES USA

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