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56 PCB007 MAGAZINE I JULY 2022 from the top down, manufacturing will find a way to get it done. is is what makes us bet- ter; your average sale price goes up. e can- do attitude of "figure out how to build it." Whereas manufacturing looks at it and says, "We're not touching it." You must decide what you want to be. I'm a proponent that sales drives compa- nies to succeed to the next level. e mom and pops must struggle with that. Johnson: Excellent. ank you. De Serrano: My pleasure. PCB007 right, you should run between $2.8 million and $3.7 million a month out of that square foot- age. Quite a few are running $3, $4, or $5 mil- lion a year in revenue, and most without a sales organization to push them to the next level. In this space, you're either a sales company that manufactures circuit boards or you're a man- ufacturing company that sells circuit boards. You must decide which one you want to be. Most of those small shops are manufacturing companies that sell circuit boards. at means the sales guys push the hard stuff to their man- ufacturing team and they say it is too hard to build. When you are a sales driven company Chapter4: Copper Foil Copper foil is the standard conductive layer used for metal- clad laminates, although other options are available. There are two main types of copper f o i l u s e d f o r P C B b o a r d s today: electrodeposited (ED) foil and rolled annealed (RA) foil. ED copper foil is pro- duced by a continuous pro- cess which yields a well-con- trolled product in mass volume and low cost as compared to RA copper foil. ED copper foil has a wide range of thick- nesses, from 5 micron to 400 micron, for PCB applications. IC substrate application requires an ultra-thin foil which is sup- plied on an 18–72-micron cop- per carrier and range in thick- nesses from 1.5 micron to 5 micron. Rolled annealed foil yields a very smooth surface where the process deforms the copper crystalline structure to achieve thickness. Unfortunately, the foil is only available in a 25" wide format. This makes use of the foil difficult in the large batch processes used by laminators to manu- facture laminates. Most pro- cesses are designed around a 5 0 - i n c h - w i d e m a c h i n e direction of the glass using large hydraulic presses with platen sizes to accommo- date the 50-inch glass width. Use of the RA foil reduces pro- ductivity and results in higher cost. With the development of newer smooth ED foils that are as smooth as RA foil, the need for RA foil and the asso- ciated cost has been largely mitigated. ED copper foil that is com- monly used for radio fre- quency and microwave and HSD designs—where high fre- quency boards require very low roughness—is required to reduce the conductor losses. Roughness is one of the key factors for high frequency applications where conductor loss is the secondary contributor to overall loss after dielectric losses at frequencies over about ~10 GHz. Continue reading... BOOK EXCERPT The Printed Circuit Designer's Guide to... High Performance Materials

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