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REAL TIME WITH... IPC APEX EXPO 2023 SHOW & TELL MAGAZINE I I-CONNECT007 167 DuBravac walked through five themes that he sees impacting the broader electronics industry. 1 "The Internet of Things is just becoming 'Things,'" he said, illustrating this state- ment with examples of both everyday devices that have become digitised and then "dataficated," as well as completely new devices that capture information and make it available in real time, allowing these devices to pre-emptively identify problems and assist in problem-solving. DuBravac sees limitless applications in wearable biometric devices, for example, which enable remote real-time monitoring of physiological data. Such devices now allow novelties in automotive finishes, such as by using electrochromic ink technology to change colour at will; devel- opments in dashboard displays and electric vehicle management systems; plus, the many possibilities offered by digital twin capabili- ties in design and product development. 2 The second trend concerned the way that we access and interface with infor- mation. He referenced not only autono- mous vehicles, but also domestic appliances and commercial logistics; in every case, gath- ering data and making it useful is the goal, often by employing digital twins and artificial intelligence as appropriate. 3 On the theme of artificial intelligence (AI), DuBravac considered AI's ability to augment the human experience. Fun- damentally, AI is about making predictions inexpensively and with some confidence. What's probable? What's possible? AI offers an avenue for answering these important questions. He then strayed into fantasy, describing rev- elations in the development of autonomous strollers and self-driving bicycles—only to admit that these had originated as April Fools pranks. But, a Chinese electric motorcycle equipped with 200 sensors can actually give real-time feedback on how it is being ridden. He made a very serious observation on what happens when something moves from scar- city to surplus: people tend to waste the surplus material or product. He used image sensors on mobile phones as an example. At one time, such sensors were an expensive resource to be used sparingly, but now, they are an inexpensive resource used maybe too widely. Similarly, equipment like the autono-

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