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Page 16 of 107

MAY 2024 I PCB007 MAGAZINE 17 issue is partnering to maximize efficiency. I think the suppliers have the resources in place to do a good job. It is just that the partnership is missing. LaRont: Who is talking to the OEMs about this? at's a good question. Matties: Inkjet suppliers on the equipment side have a vested interest in getting the OEMs to spec or qualify the material, especially the solder mask, but I like your approach. Start with coating. Walk before you run. I believe the ink suppli- ers are also talking to the OEMs. I just won- der if it's not a little disjointed because there's not enough fabricator involvement. You need to give the OEM a full analysis of every sin- gle benefit, throughout the whole process, and then work with them directly on imple- mentation. LaRont: Alex, what about standards for these new technologies and processes? Do you see a significant role for IPC or another group in pushing this technology forward through standards? IPC is a bit like a governing entity. I don't believe they are the right group to be pushing it, but they should help facilitate it. e standards come out through input from all the stakehold- ers. We are still very early in the development stages. Standards usually arrive when the prod- ucts are more mature. Matties: That's true. We just conducted an interview about in-mold electronics (IME). Standards are already being developed, but the auto industry is pushing for it. If OEMs don't push it, it doesn't happen. LaRont: Thank you, Alex, for helping us understand this better. You're welcome. PCB007 An international team of researchers from Queen Mary University of London, the University of Oxford, Lancaster University, and the University of Waterloo have developed a new single-molecule transistor that uses quantum interference to control the flow of elec- trons. The transistor opens new possibilities for using quantum effects in electronic devices. Transistors are the basic building blocks of modern electronics. They are used to amplify and switch elec- trical signals, and they are essential for everything from smartphones to space- ships. However, the traditional method of making transistors, which involves etching silicon into tiny channels, is reaching its limits. In the nanoscale structures that Professor Jan Mol, Dr J a m e s T h o m a s , a n d t h e i r group study at Queen Mary's School of Physical and Chemi- cal Sciences, quantum mechanical effects dominate, and electrons behave as waves rather than particles. Interference is a phenomenon that occurs when two waves interact with each other and either cancel each other out (destructive interference) or reinforce each other (constructive interference). In the new transistor's case, researchers switched the transistor on and off by controlling whether the electrons interfere constructively (on) or destructively (off) as they flow through the zinc porphyrin mole- cule. The researchers found that the new transistor has a very high on/off ratio, meaning that it can be turned on and off very precisely. The research is still in its initial stages, but the researchers are optimistic that the new transis- tor could be used to create a new generation of electronic devices. (Source: Queen Mary Univer- sity of London) Researchers Develop New Single-molecule Transistor That Uses Quantum Interference

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